Research Essay

Order Description
Choose 1 of 3 questions

Question 1 – The Bangkok Rules
Pathways feminism has impacted not only on the development of criminological theory but
also the advancement of gender specific policy and practice to better meet the needs of
women in the criminal justice system. In 2010, the United Nations adopted special
guidelines for the treatment of female prisoners, the United Nations Rules for the
Treatment of Women Prisoners and other Non-Custodial Measures (the ‘Bangkok Rules’).
Although these rules have yet to be fully implemented, they constitute an improvement in
international law for women in custody.
Write an essay that addresses the following questions:
1) What is pathways feminism and how has it impacted on the development of
criminological theory? Summarise the theory, any data and/or research supporting
2) What are the “Bangkok Rules’? Provide sufficient background information regarding
their development and purpose.
3) Identify one example of how pathways feminism may have impacted on the
development of the ‘Bangkok Rules.’ To answer this you will need to identify a key
theme within the Bangkok Rules and demonstrate how this developed from a
feminist pathways understanding of crime.
4) Keeping your example/key theme in mind, from a feminist pathways approach,
provide two examples as to how the Bangkok Rules might impact practice to better
meet the needs of women in prison?

Question 2 – Reducing Domestic and Family Violence in Queensland
Since 2015, a number of changes have been made to Queensland legislation in an attempt
to provide a more comprehensive response to domestic and family violence. This has
included amendments to (among other things) the Criminal Code 1899, the Penalties and
Sentences Act 1992, the Bail Act 1980, and the Domestic and Family Violence Act 2012. In
addition, a Domestic and Family Violence Specialist Court has been established at
Southport. Together, these changes represent a significant shift in the State’s approach to
the issue of domestic and family violence. In your essay, explore the following issues:
1. What recent trends can you asses in Queensland in terms of rates of domestic and
family violence? Does it appear to be increasing, decreasing, or neither?
2. In what ways do the amendments to legislation over the past few years reflect a
change in the approach taken to domestic and family violence in Queensland?
Describe some of the key legislative and policy changes that have been enacted, and
identify relevant theoretical perspectives regarding crime prevention and control
that are reflected in this change.
3. Drawing from existing research on domestic and family violence, assess whether or
not these amendments are likely to be effective in significantly reducing domestic
and family violence in Queensland. Provide supporting evidence for your arguments.
4. Finally, identify at least one additional or alternative policy strategy or approach that
you think will have a significant effect in reducing domestic and family violence.
Support your recommendation/s with existing empirical research and a strong
theoretical framework.

Question 3 – Drug Use, Crime, and Social Policy
According to the Australian National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, methamphetamine
use in Australia tripled between 2010 and 2015. Many media outlets and governmental
agencies have described this as an “epidemic” that has fuelled a corresponding growth in
some types of crime. In turn, recent state and federal responses to illicit drug offences have
on the whole become more punitive, and have seen an increase in the number of people in
prison for such offences.
Write an essay that addresses the following questions:
1. Is there evidence to suggest that recent reported increases in drug use in Australia
have been responsible for corresponding increases in crime? Here, you need to make
sure to draw from existing empirical research, and not rely on media reports or
partisan sources.
2. Drawing from your findings, make an argument as to whether or not the increased
criminalisation of drug offenses in Australia has been effective in reducing the use
and availability of illicit drugs.
3. Drawing from existing research on different western countries’ policy responses to
illicit drug use in the last 20 years, provide two concrete policies that you think
would be most effective in addressing serious drug abuse and/or addiction, and
reducing crime-related drug offences. Again, make sure to draw from empirical
research in your answer.
4. When presenting your policy recommendations clearly identify and apply one or
more criminological theories to support your proposals. These can include those we
cover this trimester, but you may also draw on others as you see fit.